The Prophet's Prayer (saws)

Chapter 9 Footnotes


123 The three `Arabic words hamz, nafkh, and nafth, were interpreted such by the narrator; all three interpretations are also traced back to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) with a saheeh mursal isnaad. By "poetry" here is meant the vain kind, for the Prophet (on whom be peace and blessings) said: "Truly, some poetry is wisdom" (Bukhaari ).

124 Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni & Haakim who, along with Ibn Hibbaan and Dhahabi, declared it saheeh. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (342).

125 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi with a hasan isnaad. Ahmad endorsed it (Masaa'il of Ibn Haani 1/50).

126 Bukhaari , Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Tahaawi & Ahmad.

127 Abu Daawood & Sahmi (64 -65); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa' (343). Abu `Amr ad-Daani transmitted it al-Muktafaa (5/2) and said: "This hadeeth has many routes, and it is what is depended upon in this regard, and several of the past imaams and reciters preferred to stop at every verse, even if some were connected (in meaning) to the one after." I say: This is a sunnah which has been neglected by the majority of the reciters of this age, let alone others.

128 Tammaam ar-Raazi in al-Fawaa'id, Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (7/2), Abu Nu`aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan (1/104) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Both of these recitations are mutawaatir.

129 Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Baihaqi. It is given in Irwaa' (302).

130 Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh, and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh. It is also in Irwaa' (302).

131 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

132 i.e. soorah al-Fatihah. It is an example of the wording including the whole prayer but intending only a part, as a way of emphasis on that part.

133 Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Maalik, and Sahmi has a supporting hadeeth of Jaabir in Taareekh Jurjaan (144)

134 Baaji said: "He is referring to the saying of the Exalted "And We have bestowed upon you seven of the Oft-Repeated and the Grand Recitation." (Hijr 15:87). It is named the "seven" because it has seven verses, and "oft-repeated" because it is repeated again and again in prayer. It has been called "the grand recitation" to specify this name for it, even though every part of the Qur'aan is a grand recitation; similarly, the Ka`bah is "the House of Allaah" even though all houses belong to Allaah; this is by way of specifying it and emphasising its importance."

135 Nasaa'i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

136 Bukhaari in his article on "Recitation behind the Imaam" with a saheeh isnaad.

137 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), Haakim, Tabaraani & Ibn Hibbaan who, along with Haakim, declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is in Irwaa' (303).

138 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan; its isnaad is saheeh. (Saheeh Abi Dawood no. 807)

139 hadhdhan: reciting quickly, implying racing or hurrying.

140 Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Ahmad. Tirmidhi & Daaraqutni declared it hasan.

141 Maalik, Humaidi, Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Mahaamali (6/139/1). Tirmidhi declared it hasan; Abu Haatim ar-Raazi, Ibn Hibbaan & Ibn Qayyim declared it saheeh.

142 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Abu Daawood, Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ruwayaani in his musnad (24/119/1). It is given in Irwaa' (332, 394).

143 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Daaraqutni, Ibn Maajah, Tahaawi & Ahmad from numerous routes, musnad and mursal. Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah declared it strong, as in al-Furoo` of Ibn `Abdul Haadi (48/2). Boosayri declared some of its isnaads saheeh. I have discussed it in detail and investigated its routes of narration inthe manuscript version and then in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (no. 500)

144 Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. It is given in Irwaa' (506)

145 Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Siraaj.

146 Bukhaari in his article, Ahmad & Siraaj with a hasan isnaad.

147 Maalik & Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

* NB The view of the validity of recitation behind the imaam in quiet but not loud prayers was taken by Imaam Shaafi`i initially, and by Muhammad the student of Abu Haneefah in a narration from him which was preferred by Shaikh `Ali al-Qaari and other shaikhs of the madhhab; it was also the position of, among others, the Imaams Zuhri, Maalik, Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, several of the muhadditheen, and it is the preference of Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah.

148 Tirmidhi & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. Transmitted also by Aajuri in Aadaab Haml al-Qur'aan. As for the hadeeth, "He who recites behind the imaam, his mouth is filled with fire", it is fabricated (mawdoo`) and this is explained in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-da`eefah (no. 569) - see Appendix 5.

149 Bukhaari in Juz' al-Qiraa'ah & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

150 Bukhaari , Muslim, Nasaa'i, & Daarimi; the additional wordings are reported by the latter two, and prove that this hadeeth cannot justify that the imaam does not say aameen, as reported from Maalik; hence, Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Baari, "It clearly shows that the imaam says aameen." Ibn `Abdul Barr says in Tamheed (7/13), "It is the view of the majority of the Muslims, including Maalik as the people of Madeenah report from him, for it is authentic from Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) through the ahaadeeth of Abu Hurairah (i.e. this one) and that of Waa'il ibn Hujr (i.e. the previous one)."

151 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

152 Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ahmad & Siraaj with two saheeh isnaads.

*NB The aameen of the congregation behind the imaam should be done loudly and simultaneously with the imaam, not before him as the majority of worshippers do, nor after him. This is what I finally find most convincing, as I have explained in some of my works, among them Silsilat al-ahaadeeth ad-da`eefah (no. 952, vol. 2) which has been printed and published by the grace of Allaah, and Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/205). See Appendix 6.

153 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad; the other hadeeth was transmitted by Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (4/14/2). This and other similar hadeeths contain permission for infants to enter the mosque. As for the hadeeth on many lips: "Keep your small children away from your mosques...", it is da`eef and cannot be used for proof at all; among those who have declared it da`eef are Ibn al-Jawzi, Mundhiri, Haitami, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani and Boosayri. `Abdul Haqq al-Ishbeeli said, "It is baseless".

154 Bukhaari & Muslim.

155 There are many ahadeeth mentioned further on which prove this.

156 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/100/1), Ahmad & `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (9/2) with a saheeh isnaad.

157 Ibn Nasr & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad; I take the meaning of the hadeeth as: Make every rak`ah have a complete soorah. The order is one of preference, not compulsion, from the evidence which follows.

158 Ahmad & Abu Ya`laa from two routes. Also see "Recitation in Fajr prayer".

159 As he did in Fajr, as will follow.

160 Details and sources will follow shortly.

161 i.e. a soorah after al-Fatihah.

162 Bukhaari as ta`leeq & Tirmidhi as mawsool, and he declared it saheeh.

163 nazaa'ir: soorahs which are similar in meaning, e.g. they both contain advice, commandments, or stories.

164 These are agreed to end at the end of the Qur'aan; the soundest view is that they begin with soorah Qaaf (no. 50).

165 Bukhaari & Muslim.

166 The first number is that of the soorah, while the second is the number of aayaat in the soorah. By inspecting the first of the two numbers in each case, it is easy to see that in many of these combinations, he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) did not stick to the Qur'aanic order of the soorahs, so this is evidence for the permissibility of doing this, even though it is better to follow the sequence of the Qur'aan. A similar case is to be found later under "Night prayer".

167 Muslim & Tahaawi.

168 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. This hadeeth is general, so it applies to both recitation during prayer, whether voluntary or obligatory, and outside it. Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/2) has transmitted from Abu Moosa al-Ash`ari and Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah that they used to say this in obligatory prayers, and from `Umar and `Ali without such specification.

169 In the original, "the young man said".

170 dandanah: when someone speaks some words such that their intonation is audible but they cannot be understood; it is a little bit more than murmuring. (Nihaayah)

171 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1634) & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. It has a supporting narration in Abu Daawood (no. 758, Saheeh Abi Dawood) and the basic story is in Bukhaari and Muslim. The first addition is in one narration of Muslim, the second in Ahmad (5/74), and the third and fourth in Bukhaari . Also under this heading is the hadeeth on the authority of Ibn `Abbaas: "that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) prayed two rak`ahs in which he recited only al-Fatihah", transmitted by Ahmad (1/282), Haarith ibn Abi Usaamah in his musnad (p.38 of its zawaaid) and Baihaqi (2/62) with a da`eef isnaad. I used to declare this hadeeth hasan in previous works, until I realised that I had been mistaken, because this hadeeth depends on Hanzalah al-Dawsi, who is da`eef, and I do not know how this was unknown to me; maybe I thought he was someone else. Anyway, praise is due to Allaah who guided me to recognise my mistake, and that is why I hurried to correct it in print. Then Allaah compensated me with this better hadeeth of Mu`aadh which relates to what the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas indicated. Praise be to Allaah by whose Grace good actions are completed.

172 There is Ijmaa` (consensus of opinion) of the Muslims on this, with successors passing it on from the predecessors, along with authentic hadeeths which establish this, as Nawawi has said, and some of them follow. See also Irwaa' (345).

173 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

174 Bukhaari & Muslim.

175 see the sections on his recitation in Friday prayer and the two `Eid prayers.

176 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

177 Bukhaari & Muslim.

178 `Abdul Haqq said in Tahajjud (90/1):

"As for voluntary prayers during the day, there is nothing authentic from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) regarding either quiet or loud recitation, but it would seem that he used to recite quietly during them. It is reported from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) that once, during the daytime, he passed by `Abdullaah ibn Hudhaafah who was praying and reciting loudly, so he said to him: O `Abdullaah, let Allaah hear, not us. But this hadeeth is not strong."

179 Muslim & Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad.

180 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi in Shamaa'il with a hasan isnaad. The hadeeth means that he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to moderate between quietness and loudness.

181 Nasaa'i, Tirmidhi in Shamaa'il & Baihaqi in Dalaa'il with a hasan isnaad.

182 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi agreed.

183 ibid.

184 The last seventh of the Qur'aan, beginning with soorah Qaaf (no. 50) according to the soundest view, as before.

185 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

186 Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/69/1) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreeed.

187 Bukhaari & Muslim.

188 Muslim & Tirmidhi. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa' (345).

189 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

190 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. And what is apparent is that he (`alaihis salaam) did it on purpose to establish its validity.

191 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Ibn Bushraan in al-Amaali & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/176/1); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

192 lit. "the two by means of which refuge is sought", i.e. the last two surahs of the Qur'aan, both beginning "Say: I seek refuge ... "

193 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

194 Bukhaari & Muslim.

195 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Bazzaar with a good isnaad.

196 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

197 Moosaa is mentioned in aayah 45: "Then We sent Moosaa and his brother Haaroon, with our signs and manifest authority. ;" `Isa is mentioned soon after in aayah 50: "And We made the son of Maryam and his mother as a sign - we gave them both shelter on high ground, affording rest and security and furnished with springs. "

198 Muslim, & Bukhaari in ta`leeq.form. It is given in Irwaa' (397).

199 Ahmad & Abu Ya`laa in their musnads, and Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah.

200 Bukhaari & Muslim.

201 ibid.

202 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

203 Bukhaari & Muslim.

204 Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim.

205 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

206 ibid.

207 Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah.

208 Tahaawi, Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh & Ibn Bushraan; Ibn Haajar declared it hasan in al-Ahaadeeth al-`Aaliyaat (no. 16).

209 Bukhaari & Muslim.

210 Muslim, & Bukhaari in Juz' al-Qiraa'ah (Article on Recitation).

211 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/165/1).

212 Ahmad & Muslim.

213 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhee& Ibn Khuzaimah (1/67/2); the latter two declared it saheeh.

214 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2).

215 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

216 Ahmad & Muslim. The hadeeth contains evidence that reciting more than al-Faatihah in the last two rak`ahs is a sunnah, and many Companions did so, among them Abu Bakr Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with him). It is also the view of Imaam Shaafi`i, whether in Zuhr or others, and of our later scholars, Abul Hasanaat al-Lucknowi took it in Notes on Muhammad's al-Muwatta' (p. 102) and said:

"Some of our companions take hold a very strange view in obligating a sajdah sahw (prostration for forgetfulness) for the recitation of a soorah in the last two rak`ahs, but the commentators on al-Maniyyah, Ibraaheem al-Halabi, Ibn Ameer Haajj and others, have refuted this view extremely well. There is no doubt that those who said this were unaware of the hadeeth, and had it reached them they would not have said so."

217 Bukhaari & Muslim.

218 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2) & Diyaa' al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

219 Bukhaari in Article on Recitation & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

220 Muslim & Tayaalisi.

221 Bukhaari & Muslim.

222 ibid.

223 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah.

224 Ahmad & Muslim.

225 Bukhaari & Muslim.

226 ibid.

227 ibid (Bukhaari & Muslim).

228 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

229 Tayaalisi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

230 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/166/2), Tabaraani & Maqdisi with a saheeh isnaad.

231 Bukhaari & Muslim.

232 ibid.

233 called "at-toolayain": A`raaf (7) is agreed to be one; An`aam (6) is the other, according to the most correct saying, as in Fath al-Baari.

234 Bukhaari, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/68/1), Ahmad, Siraaj & Mukhlis.

235 Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad.

236 Ahmad, Maqdisi, Nasaa'ee Ibn Nasr & Tabaraani .

237 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

238 Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan.

239 Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaai.

240 ibid.

241 ibid. It is also given in Irwaa' (295)

242Nasaai with Saheeh isnaad.

243 Bukhaari & Muslim.

244 The narration is like this, with Nisaa' (4) before aal-`Imraan (3), and thus it is evidence for (the permissibility of) departing from the order of surahs found in the `Uthmaani copy of the Qur'aan in recitation. An example of this has already been seen.

245 Muslim & Nasaa'i .

246 Abu Ya`laa & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Ibn al-Atheer says: "... the Seven Long surahs are Baqarah (2), aal-`Imraan (3), Nisaa' (4), Maa'idah (5), An`aam (6), A`raaf (7) and Tawbah (9)."

247 Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh isnaad.

248 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

249 Bukhaari & Muslim.

250 Nasaa'i & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

251 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

252 Daarimi & Sa`eed ibn Mansoor in his sunan with a saheeh isnaad.

253 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

254 Daarimi & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

255 Ar. shirrah: excitement, enthusiasm, keenness, energy. The shirrah of youth is his its beginning and its fervour/zeal. Imaam Tahaawi says:

"This is the zeal/fervour of the Muslims in their actions which bring them nearer to their Lord. However they are bound to fall short and leave some actions (which they began due to this zeal) so the most beloved of their actions to Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) were those done otherwise (and kept up), so he ordered them to carry out righteous deeds which they are able to do continually and keep to until they meet their Lord-the Mighty and Majestic. It is narrated from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) to clarify this that he said: "The actions most loved by Allaah are those which are the most regular, even if they are little."

I say: this hadeeth which he prefixes with the words "it is narrated" is saheeh, agreed upon by Bukhaari & Muslim from the narration of `Aa'ishah (Allaah be pleased with her).

256 Ar. fatrah: interval, break, lapse; referring here to a period of reduced enthusiasm.

257 Ahmad & Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh.

258 Ibn Sa`ad (1/376) & Abu ash-Shaikh in `Akhlaaq Nabi (281).

259 Daarimi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

260 ibid.

261 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr with a saheeh isnaad.

262 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

263 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

264Muslim & Abu Daawood. This hadeeth and others make it disliked (makrooh) to stay awake the whole night, whether always or regularly, for it is against the example of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam); for if staying up the whole night were better, he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) would have done so, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. So do not be deceived by what is narrated from Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) that he prayed Fajr with the ablution of `Ishaa' for forty years!! (translator's note: see Tablighi Nisab: Virtues of Salaat by Maulana Zakariyya Kandhalvi for examples of this type of claim) For this narration from him is totally baseless; in fact `Allaamah al-Fairoozaabaadi says in Ar-Radd `alaa al-Mu`tarid ((44/1):

"This narration is a clear lie and cannot be attributed to the Imaam, for there is nothing excellent about it, whereas it was the nature of the likes of the Imaam to do the better thing; there is no doubt that the renewal of purification for each prayer is more excellent, most complete, and best. This is even if it is correct that he stayed awake the length of the night for forty consecutive years! This story seems more like a fairy tale, and is an invention of some of the extremely ignorant fanatics, who say it about Abu Haneefah and others, and all of it is lies."

265 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani (1/187/2); Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

266 Nasaa'i, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/70/1), Ahmad, Ibn Nasr & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

267 Ahmad & Bukhaari .

268 Nasaa'i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh.

269 Tirmidhi, Abul `Abbaas al-Asamm in his al-Hadeeth (vol 2 no. 117) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

270 Nasaa'i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

271 The evidence for these two rak`ahs is found in Saheeh Muslim and others as a practice of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), but they oppose his saying: Make the last of your prayer at night odd (witr) transmitted by Bukhaari and Muslim. The scholars have differed in reconciling these two hadeeth, none of them being convincing to me, so the most cautious thing is to leave the two rak`ahs in compliance with the command of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). Allaah knows best.

Later I came across an authentic hadeeth which had a command for two rak`ahs after witr, so the order of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) agrees with his action, and the two rak`ahs are validated for everyone; the first command is thus one of recommendation, not negating the two rak`ahs. The latter hadeeth is given in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth as-saheehah (1993) - see Appendix 7.

272 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr and Tahaawi (1/202) and Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan with a hasan saheeh isnaad.

273 Muslim & Abu Daawood. It is given in Irwaa' (345).

274 ibid.

275 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

276 ibid.

277 ibid.

278 This is the saying of Imaam Shaafi`i, Ahmad and Ishaaq, and some of the later Hanafis who researched took this view. As for the recitation of a soorah after it, this is the view of some of the Shaafi`ees and it is the correct view.

279 Bukhaari , Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i & Ibn al-Jaarood. The addition is not shaadhdh (odd) as Tuwaijiri thinks.

280 Nasaa'i & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad. 1Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

2Muslim & Maalik.

3Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

4Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

5Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

6In the section on "Recitation of one verse at a time".

7Tarjee` -explained as a vibrating tone by Ibn Hajar; Manaawi said: "It arises from a feeling of joy & happiness, which he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) felt a good deal on the day of the conquest of Makkah."

8Bukhaari & Muslim.

9ibid. Ibn Hajar said in his commentary on"aaa (| | |)", "this is a hamzah with a fathah, followed by a silent alif, followed by another hamzah." Shaikh `Ali al-Qaari quoted likewise from others and then said: "It is obvious that this is three prolonged alifs."

10Bukhaari as ta`leeq, Abu Daawood, Darimi, Haakim and Tammaam al-Raazi with two saheeh isnaads.

NOTE: This hadeeth was turned round by one of the narrators, who narrated it as "beautify your voices with the Qur'aan". This is a mistake in narration and understanding, and whoever declared it saheeh is submerged in error, for it contradicts the authentic explanatory narrations in this section. In fact, it is a prime example of a maqloob hadeeth, and the details of this brief note are in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (no. 5328).

11A saheeh hadeeth transmitted by Ibn al Mubarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Daarimi, Ibn Nasr, Tabaraani, Abu Nu`aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan and Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah.

12Daarimi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

13Abu Daawood and Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

14 Mundhiri said, "taghannnaa does mean to recite in a pleasant voice; Sufyaan bin `Uyainah and others took the the view that it is to do with istighnaa (i.e. letting the Qur'aan make one dispense with worldly pleasures), but this is rejected."

15Bukhaari, Muslim, Tahaawi & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (81/1).

16The scholars have said that musical instruments here means a beautiful voice and that the family of Daawood refers to Daawood himself; the family of so-and-so can be specifically for so-and-so only; Daawood (`alaihis salaam) had an extremely beautiful voice. This is mentioned by Nawawi in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim.

17`Abdur Razzaaq in al-Amaali (2/44/1), Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Nasr and Haakim.

18 Abu Daawood, Ibn Hibbaan, Tabaraani, Ibn `Asaakir (2/296/2) & Diyaa' in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

19 Ar. tafl: to blow with a minimum amount of saliva - Nihaayah.

20 Muslim & Ahmad. Nawawi (rahimahullaah) says, "This hadeeth contains a recommendation to seek refuge from the devil when he tempts, along with spitting to the left three times."