175Nasaa'i (1/173) with a saheeh isnaad.
176Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.
177Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a good sanad.
178Tayaalisi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah. About iq`aa', Abu `Ubaidah and others said, "It is when a man presses his buttocks against the ground, keeps his shins upright, and leans his hands on the ground, the way a dog does." This is different to the iq`aa' between sajdahs, which is approved in the Sunnah, as covered previously.
179Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & others. It is given in Irwaa' (316).
180Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.
181Abu Daawood & Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad. It is as though the meaning is that he would not separate his elbows from his side, as Ibn al-Qayyim has elucidated in Zaad al-Ma`aad.
182Baihaqi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given, as well as the next one, in Irwaa' (380).
183Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a good isnaad.
184`Abdur Razzaaq; `Abdul Haqq declared it saheeh in his Ahkaam (no. 1284 - with my checking).
185Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Khuzaimah. Humaidi (13/1) and Abu Ya`laa (275/2) added with a saheeh sanad on the authority of Ibn `Umar: "and this is the shooting of the devil; no-one will forget when he does this", and Humaidi raised his finger. Humaidi also said that Muslim bin Abi Maryam said, "A man related to me that in a church in Syria, he saw images of Prophets depicted like this", and Humaidi raised his finger. This is an extremely strange remark, but its sanad up to "the man" is saheeh.
186Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.
187Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (208), Ibn Khuzaimah (1/86/1-2) & Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (485) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Mulaqqin also declared it saheeh (28/2), and it has a supporting narration in Ibn `Adi (287/1).
188ibid. About "supplicating with it", Imaam Tahaawi said, "This is evidence that it was at the end of the prayer." Hence, there is evidence in this that the Sunnah is to continue pointing and moving the finger until the tasleem, for the supplication is until then. This is the view of Maalik and others. Imaam Ahmad was asked, "Should a man point with his finger during prayer?" He replied, "Yes, vigorously." (Mentioned by Ibn Haani in his Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad, 1/80). From this, it is clear that moving the finger in tashahhud is a proven sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), and it was practised by Ahmad and other imaams of the Sunnah. Therefore, those who think that it is pointless and irrelevant and has nothing to do with the Prayer, should fear Allaah, since because of this, they do not move their fingers although they know it to be an established sunnah; and they take great pains to interpret it in a way which is inconsistent with the `Arabic way of expression and contrary to the understanding of the imaams with regard to it.
The amazing thing is that some of them will defend an imaam on other issues, even if his opinion conflicts with the Sunnah, with the argument that to point out the imaam's mistakes inevitably means to taunt and disrespect him. They then forget this and reject this established sunnah, at the same time mocking at those who practise it. Whether or not they realise it, their mockery also includes those imaams whom they often defend wrongly, and who are correct about the Sunnah this time! In fact, they are deriding the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) himself, for he is the one who brought us this sunnah, and so jeering at it is equivalent to jeering at him. << But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this except ... >>
As for putting the finger down after pointing, or limiting the movement to the affirmation (saying laa ilaaha: 'there is no god ...') and negation (saying: illallaahu: '... except Allaah'), all of that has no basis in the Sunnah; in fact, it is contrary to the Sunnah, as this hadeeth proves.
Further, the hadeeth that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic isnaad, as I have explained in Da`eef Abi Daawood (175). Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the hadeeth above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well-known among the scholars.
189Ahmad, Bazzaar, Abu Ja`far al-Bukhteeri in al-Amaali (60/1), `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (12/2) with a hasan sanad, Rooyaani in his Musnad (249/2) & Baihaqi .
190Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/123/2) with a hasan sanad.
191Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/40/1, 2/123/2) & Nasaa'i . Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed, and there is a supporting narration for it in Ibn Abi Shaibah.
192Nasaa'i & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.
193Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.
194Baihaqi transmitted it as a narration from `Aa'ishah with a good isnaad, as verified by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (28/2).
195Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (338).
196Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer (3/25/1) with a saheeh sanad. The literal meaning of the hadeeth is evidence for the validity of supplication in every tashahhud, even the one not adjacent to the tasleem, and this is the view of Ibn Hazm (rahimahullaah).
197Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.
198Bukhaari & Muslim.
199Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
200Ar. tahiyyaat, i.e. "all words which imply peace, sovereignty and eternity, are due to Allaah." (Nihaayah)
201Ar. salawaat, i.e. "all supplications which are used to glorigy the majesty of Allaah, for He is fully entitled to them, and none but Him is worthy of them." (Nihaayah)
202Ar. tayyibaat, i.e. "all good and pure words suitable for praising Allaah, not those ones incompatible with his attributes with which kings were greeted." (Fath al-Baari)
203meaning seeking of refuge with Allaah and being strengthened by him, since as-Salaam (Peace) is actually a name of Allaah. Hence, the greeting effectively means: Allaah be a watcher and safeguard over you. Similarly, it is said, "Allaah be with you", i.e. in His safeguarding, help and favour.
204A term for all the good continuously emanating from Allaah.
205Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/90/2), Siraaj & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (258/2). It is given in Irwaa' (321).
Ibn Mas`ood's statement, "We said: Peace be on the Prophet" clarifies that the Companions (radi Allaahu `anhum) used to say, "Peace be on you, O Prophet" in tashahhud while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but when he died, they ceased to do that, instead saying, "Peace be on the Prophet". Undoubtedly, this was with the endorsement of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam); this is supported by the fact that `Aa'ishah (radi Allaahu `anhaa) would similarly teach the tashahhud in prayer with "Peace be on the Prophet", as transmitted by Siraaj in his Musnad (9/1/2) & Mukhlis in al-Fawaa'id (11/54/1) with two saheeh isnaads from her.
Ibn Hajar says, "This addition shows clearly that they used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet', addressing him directly during his life, but when the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) died, they stopped addressing him and mentioned him in the third person instead, saying 'Peace be on the Prophet'." He also says in a different place, "Subki said in Sharh al-Minhaaj, after mentioning this narration from Abu `Awaanah only, 'If this is authentically-reported from the Companions, it proves that after his time, it is not compulsory to address the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) directly in the greeting of peace, so one says: Peace be on the Prophet.' (Ibn Hajar continues:) This is authentic without doubt (i.e. because it is established in Sahih al-Bukhaari ), and I have also found strong support for it:- `Abdur Razzaaq said: Ibn Juraij informed me: `Ataa' informed me that the Companions used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but after he died, they would say 'Peace be on the Prophet', and this is a saheeh isnaad. As for Sa`eed bin Mansoor's narration from Abu `Ubaidah bin `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood, who reported from his father that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) taught them the tashahhud, and then he (`Abdullaah bin Mas`ood) said it (the tashahhud); Ibn `Abbaas said: We used to say 'Peace be on you, O Prophet' only while he was alive, to which Ibn Mas`ood replied, 'This is how we were taught, and this is how we teach it', it would appear that Ibn `Abbaas said this as a matter of discussion but Ibn Mas`ood did not accept. However, the narration of Abu Ma`mar (i.e. the narration of Bukhaari ) is more authentic, since Abu `Ubaidah did not hear (ahaadeeth) from his father, and furthermore, the isnaad up to Abu `Ubaidah is weak." (End of quote from Ibn Hajar)
These words of Ibn Hajar have been quoted by several scholars in their analysis, e.g. Qastalaani, Zarqaani, Lucknowi, etc. They all chose to give his words without commenting further. This discussion is treated more fully in al-Asl.
206Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Shaafi`i & Nasaa'i .
207see next note.
208These two additions have been proved to be part of the tashahhud from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). Ibn `Umar did not add them of his own accord (far is he above such a thing! ); in fact, he learnt them from other Companions who reported them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), and he then added them to the tashahhud which he heard from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) directly.
209Abu Daawood & Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh.
210Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah.
211Maalik & Baihaqi with saheeh isnaads. Although this hadeeth is mawqoof, it is effectively marfoo`, for it is known that this sort of thing is not said from personal opinion, since it were so, it would be no better than any other sayings of dhikr, as Ibn `Abdul Barr has said.
*NB: In none of the types of tashahhud is there the addition: wa maghfiratuhu (... "and His forgiveness"), so one should not be accustomed to it. Hence some of the Salaf rebuked it, as the following narrations show:
Tabaraani (3/56/1) reported with a saheeh isnaad from Talhah bin Musarrif, who said: Rabee` bin Khaitham added during tashahhud, "... and His blessings, and His forgiveness"! So `Alqamah said, "We stop where we were taught: Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings"; `Alqamah was actually following the example of his teacher `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood (radi Allaahu `anhu), from whom it is authentically-reported that he was teaching a man the tashahhud: when he got to "I bear witness that there is no (true) god except Allaah ...", the man said: "alone, He has no partner", to which `Abdullaah said, "He is so, but we stop at where we were taught." (Transmitted by Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Awsat, no. 2848, with a saheeh isnaad.)
212Abu `Awaanah in his Saheeh (2/324) & Nasaa'i .
213They had said, "O Messenger of Allaah, we have been taught how to send peace on you (i.e. in tashahhud), but how do we send prayers on you? He said, "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad ..." etc. Thus he did not specify one tashahhud to the exclusion of another, so there is evidence here to establish sending prayers on him in the first tashahhud also. This is the way of Imaam Shaafi`i, as in the text of his book al-Umm, and it is held to be correct by his companions, as Nawawi has explained in al-Majmoo` (3/460) and supported in Rawdah Taalibeen (1/263). It is also the view of Wazeer bin Hubairah al-Hanbali in al-Ifsaah, as Ibn Rajab ha quoted and strongly supported in Dhail Tabaqaat (1/280). Many ahaadeeth exist about sending prayers on him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in tashahhud; in none of them is there any such specification mentioned. In fact, these ahaadeeth are general, hence including every tashahhud, and I have given them in al-Asl as ta`leeq, but not in the main text, for they do not satisfy our conditions for authenticity. However, they do support each other in meaning, and those who reject and oppose this have no authentic evidence to use as proof, as I have detailed in al-Asl. Similarly, to say that adding anything to "O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad" is makrooh has no basis in the Sunnah, nor is there any convincing proof for it. In fact, we see that whoever says this does not implement the previous instruction of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), "Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad ..." ; there is more to this discussion in al-Asl.
214One of the earliest views about the meaning of "sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)" is that of Abu al-`Aaliyah (with reference to Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:56), "Allaah's sending prayers on his Prophet means His exalting him and raising his rank; the angels' and others' sending prayers means their seeking this from Allaah, and here it is meant asking the prayers to be increased, not asking for the original prayer in itself." Ibn Hajar quoted this in Fath al-Baari, and went on to refute the widespread notion that the Lord's prayer on someone is His Mercy; Ibn al-Qayyim also clarified this in Jalaa' al-Afhaam, leaving little scope for further comment.
215from barakah: growth, increase. Hence this supplication secures for Muhammad the good which Allaah granted to the family of Ibraaheem, continual, established good, as well as its multiplying and increase.
216Ahmad & Tahaawi with a saheeh sanad.
217see next note.
218These two additions are conclusively found in Bukhaari, Tahaawi, Baihaqi, Ahmad & Nasaa'i . They also exist via different routes of narration in other types of this supplication (see nos. 3,7), and so do not be confused by Ibn al-Qayyim's view in Jalaa' al-Afhaam (p. 198), following in the footsteps of his great teacher Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fataawaa (1/16), "There is no authentic hadeeth with the phrases 'Ibraaheem' and 'the family of Ibraaheem' together"; here, we have shown you such authentic ahaadeeth. Ibn al-Qayyim's error is further established by the fact that he himself declared no. 7 saheeh, which contains what he denied above!
219Bukhaari, Muslim, Humaidi (138/1) & Ibn Mandah (68/2), who said, "There is consensus on this hadeeth being authentic."
220Ahmad, Nasaa'i & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (44/2) with a saheeh sanad.
221Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) & Abu Daawood; Haakim declared it saheeh.
222Bukhaari, Nasaa'i, Tahaawi, Ahmad & Ismaa`eel al-Qaadi in Fadl as-Salaah `alaa Nabi sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam (p. 28 1st ed., p. 62 2nd ed. with my checking).
223Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaa'i.
224Nasaa'i, Tahaawi, Abu Sa`eed bin al-`Arabi in al-Mu`jam (79/2) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Qayyim gave its source as Muhammad bin Ishaaq as-Siraaj in Jalaa' al-Afhaam (pp. 14-15) and then declared it saheeh. This wording includes both 'Ibraaheem' and 'the family of Ibraaheem', something overlooked by both Ibn al-Qayyim & his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, as explained above.
225 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.
226 a famous grammarian and scholar of the `Arabic language of the second century AH.
227which is preserved in the Zaahiriyyah Library in Damascus.
228 Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Tabaraani with various isnaads from Ibn Mas`ood - the details are given in as-Saheehah (878) - and there is a supporting hadeeth of Ibn az-Zubair in Majma` az-Zawaa'id (2/142).
229Bukhaari & Muslim.
230Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnaad. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (604).
231Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.
233Abu `Awaanah & Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.
234literally, "as one who kneads dough."
235Harbi in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth; its meaning is found in Bukhaari and Abu Daawood. As for the hadeeth, he forbade that a man should support himself with his hand when getting up during prayer", it is munkar and not authentic, as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (967).
236Qunoot: carries several meanings, e.g. humility, devotion. What is meant here is the special supplication while standing during prayer.
237Bukhaari & Ahmad.
239Ahmad & Tabaraani with a saheeh sanad. To raise the hands in qunoot is the madhhab of Ahmad and also Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, cf. Marwazi's Masaa'il (p. 23). As for wiping the face with the hands, it is not reported in this position, and is thus an innovation; as for outside of prayer, it is not authentically-reported: all that has been transmitted in this regard is either weak or very weak, as I have shown in Da`eef Abi Daawood (262) & Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (597). This is why `Izz bin `Abd as-Salaam said in one of his fatwas, "Only an ignorant person does it." See Appendix 8.
240Abu Daawood & Siraaj ; Haakim declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi & others agreed.
241Abu Daawood, Siraaj & Daaraqutni with two hasan sanads.
242Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/78/2) & Khateeb in Kitaab al-Qunoot with a saheeh sanad.
243Bukhaari & Ahmad; the addition is in Muslim.
244Nasaa'i, Ahmad, Siraaj (109/1) & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad with a good sanad.
245Ibn Nasr & Daaraqutni with a saheeh sanad.
246We have said, "... sometimes" because the Companions who narrated the Witr prayer did not mention the qunoot in it, whereas had the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) done so always, they would have all mentioned it. However, Ubayy ibn Ka`b alone narrated the qunoot in Witr, so this shows that he used to do it sometimes. Hence, this is evidence that qunoot in Witr is not obligatory (waajib), and this is the opinion of the majority of scholars. For this reason, the researching Hanafi scholar, Ibn al-Humaam, recognised in Fath al-Qadeer (1/306,359,360) that the view of it being obligatory is feeble and not substantiated by evidence. This shows his fairness and lack of party-spirit, for this view which he has supported is contrary to his madhhab !
247Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/41/1), Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i in Sunan al-Kubraa (218/1-2), Ahmad, Tabaraani, Baihaqi & Ibn `Asaakir (4/244/2) narrated this, along with the supplication after it, with a saheeh sanad. Ibn Mandah narrated the supplication only in Tawheed (70/2) with a different, hasan sanad. Its takhreej is also given in Irwaa' (426).
248Ibn Khuzaimah (1/119/2) & also Ibn Abi Shaibah etc., as for the last hadeeth.
*NB: Nasaa'i adds at the end of the qunoot: wa sall-Allaahu `ala-n-Nabiyy al-Ummiyy ("may Allaah send prayers on the Unlettered Prophet"), related with a weak isnaad; among those who declared it da`eef are Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalaani & Zurqaani. Therefore, we have not included it in our system of combining acceptable narrations. `Izz bin `Abd as-Salaam said in al-Fataawaa (66/1,1962), "To send prayers on the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in qunoot is not authentic, nor is it fitting to add to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)'s prayer in any way." This view of his shows that he did not widen the argument by including the idea of bid`ah hasanah ("good" innovation), as some of the later scholars are prone to doing !
However, it is proved in the hadeeth about Ubayy bin Ka`b leading the people during the Ramadaan night prayers that he used to send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) at the end of the qunoot, and that was during the reign of `Umar (radi Allaahu `anhu) - transmitted by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1097). Similarly is proved from Abu Haleemah Mu`aadh al-Ansaari, who also used to lead them during `Umar's rule - transmitted by Ismaa`eel al-Qaadi (no. 107) & others, so this addition is justified by the practice of the Salaf, and it is thus not fitting to categorically state that this addition is an innovation. Allaah knows best.