250ibid. As for two-rak`ah prayers such as Fajr, the Sunnah is to sit muftarishan. This difference in detail is documented from Imaam Ahmad, cf. Ibn Hani's Masaa'il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 79).
251Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.
252Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.
255Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/83/2) & al-Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
It should be known that this hadeeth proves that salaah (sending prayers) on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in this tashahhud is obligatory, due to the command about it. This opinion was taken by Imaam Shaafi`i and by Imaam Ahmad in the later of the two narrations from him, and before them by several Companions, as well as other people of knowledge. Because of this, Aajuri said in Sharee`ah (p. 415): "He who does not send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in the final tashahhud must repeat the prayer." Hence, those who label Imaam Shaafi`i as being alone and odd in his opinion on this, are not being just, as the faqeeh Haitami has explained in Darr al-Mandood (sections 13-16).
256Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad.
257Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Nasaa'i & Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (27). It is given in Irwaa' (350).
258Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh sanad.
259Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.
260We have not said, "... in his tashahhud" because the text is "... in his prayer", not specifying either tashahhud or anything else. Hence, it covers all positions suitable for supplication, e.g. prostration and tashahhud; the instruction to supplicate in these two postures has been mentioned.
261Bukhaari & Muslim. Athram said, "I asked Ahmad: 'With what (words) should I supplicate after tashahhud ?' He said, 'As has been narrated.' I said, 'Didn't the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) say, "Then he should select whichever supplication he likes" ?' He said, 'He should select out of what has been narrated.' I repeated the question: he said, 'From what has been narrated'." This was quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Majmoo` al-Fataawaa 69/218/1), who endorsed it, adding, "Hence, 'whichever supplication' refers to the supplications which Allaah loves, not to any supplication ..."; later he said, "Hence, it is best to say: (one should supplicate) with the approved, established supplications, and these are what have ben narrated and those that are beneficial." This is so, but to recognise which supplications are indeed beneficial depends on authentic knowledge, and this is rarely found among the people, so it is best to stick to the supplications quoted, especially when they include what the worshipper wishes to request. Allaah knows best.
262ma'tham: what causes a man to sin, or the sin itself.
263maghram: burden; here it means debt, as proved by the rest of the hadeeth, in which `Aa'ishah said, "Someone said to him, `Why do you seek refuge from maghram, so often, O Messenger of Allaah ?' He replied, Truly, when a man becomes indebted, he speaks and lies, and he promises and breaks his promise.
264Bukhaari & Muslim.
265i.e. from the evil of the bad actions I have done, and from the evil of not doing good actions.
266Nasaa'i with a saheeh sanad & Ibn Abi `Aasim in his as-Sunnah (no. 370 - with my checking); the addition is from the latter.
267Ahmad & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
268Nasaa'i & al-Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
269Bukhaari & Muslim.
270Ahmad, Tayaalisi, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. I have given its takhreej in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (1542).
271dandanah: to speak such the intonation is audible, but the words are incomprehensible - in the case, the quiet words of supplication. The final statement means, "Our words are like yours."
272Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/1) with a saheeh isnaad.
273Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ahmad & Ibn Khuzaimah; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
274This is tawassul (a seeking of approach) to Allaah through His most beautiful names and attributes, and this is what Allaah the Exalted commands: "To Allaah belong the most beautiful names, so call on Him by them." (A`raaf 7:180). As for seeking to approaching Allaah through other things, e.g. for so-and-so's sake, or by so-and-so's right, status, dignity, etc., there is text from Imaam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) and his companions that such a practice is at least disliked (makrooh); in general it is prohibited (haraam). Therefore, it is a pity that one sees most of the people, among them many shaikhs, totally neglecting the approved tawassul, - you will never hear them approaching Allaah this way - but they are well-versed in innovated forms of tawassul, which are at the very least debatable, as though no other way is allowed! Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah has composed an extremely good essay on this subject entitled Tawassul and Waseelah ("Approaching Allaah, and the Means of doing so"), which should be consulted, for it is very important, and there is little to compare with it in its coverage. There is also my article Tawassul - its types and its rules, which is also important in its subject-matter and format, and also refutes some of the latest misconceptions advanced by contemporary doctors of religion. May Allaah guide us and them.
275Abu Daawood, Nasaa'i, Ahmad, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Tabaraani & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (44/2, 67/1, 70/1-2) with saheeh isnaads.
276Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.